What is Google Authorship?
Google Authorship is a process in which Google verifies the identity of an author. This allows Google to provide information about the author of an article when that content is indexed by Google and appears in the search results.
In the background, Google is keeping track of the author and the social interaction with the author’s content. As the author’s good reputation and authority grows, the more likely Google is to rank content from the author higher in the search results.
Here are two helpful links.
This link is to the best overview I have found on the web for setting up authorship.
Google Author Instructions
Here is a Google Link where you can run a test to see if you properly set up Google Authority.